Having a passing in the St. XVI 107] ed la fonte patristica,” Critica letteraria cuatro , pp. 211-16): ‘Non autem Natura dedit duo lumina solis / Sed Romas dedit illa duas, quae totius orbis / Lampades existunt, Romam veteremque novamque: / Hoc inter sese tantum discrimen habentes, / Quod videt hanc Phoebus splendere, sed Hesperus illam.’
Dante laments the point that today the newest Church’s pastoral crook features drawn on by itself brand new purple blade; his visualize, although off inanimate some thing, helps to make the resulting object seem a horrifying animate crossbreed, because do the fresh new regard to Matthew 7:sixteen or seven:20: ‘by its fresh fruit you shall understand them’ (conditions verbal because of the Jesus so you’re able to impugn not true educators).
Still, when you look at the verse 121 Dante provides Marco make reference to merely around three dated boys still real time inside the Lombardy that happen to be a
Dante’s geographic source is to the fresh northeastern industry out-of Italy, maybe not the newest regions with the visibility of your emperor Frederick, but Marco’s family floor. To own Dante, Frederick is the very last emperor when deciding to take his part given that emperor of all Europe absolutely (select Conv. IV.iii.six, because the Pietrobono [comm. in order to verse 117] indicates, where he or she is known as ‘the last emperor of Romans’). It might seem uncommon that Dante should right here contain the kingship from Frederick II, viewed one of the heretics in the heck (Inf. X.119). The difficulty, but not, is not Frederick’s personal worth, however, his legal rights and you may rights while the emperor. They were known reasons for contention ranging from Frederick additionally the Chapel while in the their rule (1212-1250).
Marco’s around three vecchi, all the however live in 1300, give a good Lombard counterpart so you’re able to Cacciaguida’s forty Florentine families regarding ‘good dated days’ because urban area that will be placed in Paradiso XVI: Currado da Palazzo, from Brescia; Gherardo weil Camino, away from Padua; and you can Guido weil Castello, away from Reggio Emilia. The three of these got Guelph associations. Dante praises the past one or two for the Convivio when he are discussing correct nobility (Conv. IV.xiv.12; IV.xvi.6).
Dante reveals his arrangement having Marco’s research of one’s chapel/county condition in latest Christendom within the ancient Hebrew terms: the family out of Levi, because they was in fact, for instance the sons free lesbian hookup sites of Aaron, in the a good priestly means having Israel, was in fact rejected one straight to inherit residential property because of their priestly privileges. Come across Wide variety -thirty two.
As the multiple commentators strongly recommend, up until such as for example date while the certain better facts getting Dante’s opinion away from Gaia are unearthed, there is no way to confirm the brand new build of your own resource, wholehearted otherwise ironic
This new protagonist’s lack of knowledge regarding Gherardo’s virtues offers Marco (additionally the poet) a chance to replay the fresh new motif of-the-moment, one to everything is not what it used to be. The early commentators is actually not sure perhaps the mention of the Gaia is intended to feel in order to her supplement otherwise blame. Jacopo della Lana (comm. to verse 140) and you can Benvenuto (comm. to vv. 139-140) state she try infamous just like the a loose lady. Yet not, Benvenuto’s mind-declared student, John off Serravalle, which basically supporting his maestro’s views, has only good to talk about her (as well as claims one she blogged vernacular poetry – [comm. so you’re able to vv.139-141]). Most advanced commentators believe, since disagreement at hand is the fact that the old moments exercise at least some renowned virtue as the twenty-first century try leaden in that respect, it would only make sense to possess Gaia’s identity to help you show a ancestry out-of advantage. This is of your condition ‘s’io nol togliessi weil sua figlia Gaia’ (until / I was to get you to [a moniker] off his child, Gaia) try, however, challenging. According to Torraca (comm. to vv. 139-149) his sobriquet do upcoming become ‘il gaio’ (the brand new merry) from inside the detection of his courtly procedures and magnificence to be; you will find most likely zero better positive discovering of one’s verse than just that one. Whenever we need to insist upon the latest logically a great deal more guaranteeing negative force in the line, a comparable descriptive statement (today just meaning ‘the father out of Gaia’) will have the result regarding exhibiting how virtues of the father just weren’t found in the girl. Because the logic of the whole succession requires for example an excellent reading, the feeling from the line would appear to help with Torraca’s already unfavored understanding. The actual only real a couple most other spends of your keyword gaio regarding poem is actually, but not, entirely positive: find Paradiso XV.sixty and you can XXVI.102. Due to the fact Gaia failed to die until 1311, would she not need to qualify a fourth a great Lombard (which means that never to be included)? Or, as the a female, are she not allowed addition regarding paltry directory of the fresh new virtuous?